The Round City of Baghdad was also called Madinat-As-Salam: the City of Peace.
A round city wall was both cheaper to build for a given area and easier to defend. To improve the defenses were bent entrances and the double wall.
But the circular arrangement of streets and gates was also also tonreflect the orbit of planets,and the central position of the palace and mosque reflects the sun as the center of universe.
As it turned out, the history of Baghdad did not turn out to be so peaceful.
Islamic understanding of the shape of the earth
From 836 to 892 the capital was transferred to Samarra because of troubles with the caliph's Turkish troops in Baghdad. When Caliph al-Mu'tamid moved back to Baghdad he settled on the east bank of the Tigris which has remained the centre of the city to the present day.
In 1258 Hulagu Khan, a grandson of Genghis Khan captured, sacked, and burned Baghdad.
The Grand Library of Baghdad was destroyed. The Tigris ran black with ink from the enormous quantities of books flung into the river.
Hulagu’s Mongol army at Baghdad from wikimedia
The Mongols looted and then burnt mosques, palaces, libraries, and hospitals to the ground.
Estimates of people massacred range from 90,000 to 200,000. Hulagu had to move his camp upwind of the city, due to the stench of decay from the ruined city.
The Mongols rolled the caliph up in a rug, and rode their horses over him.
The destruction of Baghdad was to some extent a military tactic: it was supposed to convince other cities and rulers to surrender without a fight. But failed in Egypt, which defeated the Mongols at the Battle of Ain Jalut in 1260.
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